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Critical thinking works (Table 2.1). It is practical. It enables you to be more successful, to save time and energy, and experience more positive and fulfilling emotions. It is in your interest to become a better critic of your thinking: as an employee, professional, manager, scholar, parent, consumer, citizen, etc.… If you are not progressively improving the quality of your life, you have not yet discovered the true power of critical thinking.

Table 2.1
Why critical thinking?

The Problem

A Definition

Everyone thinks. It is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed, or downright prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated.

Critical thinking is that mode of thinking—about any subject, content, or problem—in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them.

The Result

A well-cultivated critical thinker:

  • raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely;

  • gathers and assesses relevant information, and effectively interprets it;

  • comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards;

  • thinks openmindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and

  • communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems.

Critical thinking is, in short, self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities.

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